||The thirty spokes unite in the one nave; but it is on the empty
space (for the axle), that the use of the wheel depends.
fashioned into vessels; but it is on their empty hollowness,
their use depends. The door and windows are cut out
(from the walls)
to form an apartment; but it is on the empty space
(within), that its
||Thirty spokes unite in one nave and on that which is non-existent [on the hole
in the nave] depends the wheel's utility. Clay is moulded
into a vessel and on that which is non-existent [on
its hollowness] depends the vessel's utility. By cutting
out doors and windows we build a house and on that
which is non-existent [on the empty space within]
depends the house's utility.
||Although the wheel has thirty spokes its utility lies in the emptiness of the
hub. The jar is made by kneading clay, but its usefulness
consists in its capacity. A room is made by cutting
out windows and doors through the walls, but the space
the walls contain measures the room's value.
||Therefore, what has a (positive) existence serves for
profitable adaptation, and what has not that for (actual) usefulness.
||Therefore, existence renders actual but non-existence renders useful.
||In the same way matter is necessary to form, but the value of reality lies in
its immateriality.(Or thus: a material body is necessary
to existence, but the value of a life is measured by
its immaterial soul.)